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The sound of strings

Here is part 2 of the series I am writing on the science behind music in “Saamagaana – The First Melody“, a monthly magazine on Indian Classical Music. The intent is to help readers understand a bit more about the science behind music and musical instruments and to enhance their appreciation of the same.

This is from the May 2015 issue of the magazine. Please contact the magazine for subscriptions.

The Sound of Strings

Just like human beings, instruments too belong to families. Instruments in a particular family are similar to each other. Often made of the same types of materials, they resemble one another, and also sound similar. R RAMKUMAR presents the second in the series on the physics of sound and how our brain perceives music, voices and musical instruments

Why do some singers stick a finger in their ear or cup their ear while singing?

Humans, in general, are not designed to hear their own voices too loudly lest this drowns out any other sound they should be paying attention to, like that of an approaching train. Closing a ear, say, by sticking a finger in the ear, helps improve the feedback between the mouth and the brain and also partially blocks external sounds.
Thus singers can hear their own voices better and also monitor their pitch better. This is especially helpful in large concert halls where there is noise/echo and also when the singer is performing in a group.

Why are most musical instruments made of strings or shaped like columns?

Remember? A musical sound or note is made up of ripple patterns that repeat and join together in an organized way.

This can be made to happen easily if the vibrating object has a simple shape. A column or a rod is one of the simplest shapes possible and can vibrate in just the right way to produce musical notes. This is why most musical instruments either have columns of steel (for example, strings in a violin) or columns of air inside tubes (for example, flutes).

I peeped into the green room before the concert and saw the violinist change some of the strings. Why did he do that?

Strings are thin, long columns of steel or some other suitable material. New strings usually produce loud, clear notes. As the violinist keeps playing on them, they gradually get worn out and become an imperfect column shape. The notes that get produced from such strings would sound weaker and may start becoming vague in pitch. This might have been the reason why you saw the violinist replace the strings. The strings might have also broken and required replacement.

If it is the string that produces the sound, then why does a violin or a guitar have a wooden body?

Vibrating strings hardly make any noise on their own as they are too thin and don’t push too much of air about. When strings are attached to a hollow box like the body of a violin or a guitar, their vibration are passed on to the wooden panels of the body which try to vibrate at the same rate as the string. This creates more powerful ripples in the air pressure, thus making louder sound.

(R Ramkumar is a mridangam artist and a senior management professional. He blogs at https://ramsabode.wordpress.com and can be reached at rramkr@gmail.com)

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What is music? What is noise?

I have started writing a new series on the science behind music in “Saamagaana – The First Melody“, a monthly magazine on Indian Classical Music. The intent is to help readers understand a bit more about the science behind music and musical instruments and to enhance their appreciation of the same.

The article written for the April 2015 issue of the magazine is reproduced below. Please contact the magazine for subscriptions.

What is music, what is noise

What is music? How is bird song different from the mellifluous flow of the Mohana raga, the pentatonic scale common to so many cultures around the world? Why is one man’s beat another man’s poison? We begin a new series on the physics of sound and how our brain perceives music, voices and musical instruments, with R RAMKUMAR

Let us start with the basics. What is sound? How did you know that your wife just started singing in the kitchen?

When we throw a stone into a pool of water, it creates ripples that travel away from the place where the stone hits the water surface. In the same manner, when your wife makes a sound by singing, it creates ripples in the air that move away from her. This creates changes in the pressure of air which pushes your eardrums in and out when it reaches your ears. Your brain analyzes this and realizes your wife just started crooning.

How do you know what is music and what is noise? What is the difference between a musical note and noise?

When ripple patterns created by any sound reaches your ear, your brain can identify whether it is made up of repeating or non-repeating patterns.

Any musical sound or note, like the one’s made by your neighbor when she starts singing, is made up of a ripple pattern that repeats itself again and again. Any noise, like the one created when your neighbor slams her window shut to prevent you from hearing her practice, produces complex ripple patterns that don’t repeat. You come to know that it is noise because there is no regularity from which you can identify a musical tone.

A musical note consists of pitch, loudness, duration and timbre. We will try to understand each of these as we go along.

Why does a violin sound different from a flute?

The distinctive sound that each instrument produces is called its timbre. The same is true of human voice as well.

Violins have strings. When the violinist tries to play a note, the string starts to vibrate in many ways at the same time in a sort of a complex dance. The number of times anything vibrates per second is called its frequency. Since the string vibrates in many ways, it produces leads to multiple frequencies getting produced (called overtones) but the whole pattern of dance usually repeats at the same rate as the lowest frequency called the fundamental frequency. All other frequencies join to support this fundamental and produce a richer sound. Thus the quality of sound produced depends on the combination of different frequencies that go into its production.

When a flautist tries to play the same note, a different proportion of the various frequencies add to produce the note, creating a distinctive sound for the note that comes from the flute.

Thus, the same musical note sounds different when played on a violin and when played on a flute.

Why is, say, Sanjay Subrahmanyan’s voice different from Sudha Raghunathan’s?

As we saw in the answer to the previous question, the number of times anything vibrates per second is called its frequency. A close proxy of frequency is pitch. The more rapid the vibrations, the higher the pitch.

Human voice is produced due to vibrations of the vocal folds (vocal cords) created by air moving out from the lungs, upwards into the throat.  An adult male usually has thicker/longer vocal folds than an adult woman which means that his vocal folds will vibrate lesser number of times per second.  Hence his pitch will usually be lower. He usually has a larger vocal tract as well and his voice is lower and deeper. This is one of the primary differences between a male and a female voice and helps you decipher whether it is a male or a female singing.

Other factors include how sounds get habitually formed and articulated in an individual, which part of the body is being used to resonate the sound etc.

Piece all this together and you know whether it is Sanjay or Sudha.

(R Ramkumar is a mridangam artist and a senior management professional. He blogs at https://ramsabode.wordpress.com and can be reached at rramkr@gmail.com)

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V.V. Subramaniam at Mylapore

Shri V.V. Subramaniam performed today in Mylapore. It’s a loss for us rasikas that we don’t get to hear him that often. What a naadham! What weight in his bowing! Each musical sound that emanated from his violin sounded so pure and complete!!!!

Hanumanthapuram Shri Bhuvarahan played the mrudangam.

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Abhishek Raghuram at Mylapore

Abhishek Raghuram sang today for the akhandam being held at Sundara Panduranga Mukunda Raghavendralaya Trust. T.K. Padmanabhan and M.A. Sundareswaran played the violin. B. Shreesundarkumar, Guru Raghavendra, Hanumanthapuram Bhuvarahan and Kunnakudy M. Balamuralikrishna took turns to play the mrudangam. A.S. Krishnan played the morsing.

Songs list:

1) mEru samAna – mAyAmALavagauLa

2) candracUDa – darbArikAnaDA

3) viTTalA salahO svAmI – dEsh

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Concert with Jeyaraaj and Jaysri at Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Chennai

Played mridangam with the veena duo Jeyaraaj and Jaysri at Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Chennai for Layapriyan Papanasam Kumar’s Maha Shivaratri akhandam. Here is the song list:

Veena:  J.T. Jeyaraaj Krishnan and Jaysri Jeyaraaj
Mrudangam: R. Ramkumar
Ghatam: Madipakkam Murali

List of songs:
1) vishvanAthEna – sAmantA – Adi – muthusvAmi dIkSitar (A)
2) cintaya mAkanda – bhairavi – rUpakam – muthusvAmi dIkSitar (AtST)
3) ADum cidambaramO – behAg – Adi – gOpAlakrishna bhArati (O)
(Key: O=raga outline, A=raga alapana, t=tAnam, N=neraval, S=kalpana swaram, T=taniavartanam)

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Abhishek Raghuram at Rathnagireeswarar Temple, Chennai

Venue: Rathnagireeswarar Temple, Besant Nagar, Chennai

Organizer: Bhaktha Mandali

Vocal: Abhishek Raghuram

Violin: Mysore Srikanth

Mrudangam: Vijay B. Natesan

Khanjira: K.V. Gopalakrishnan

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List of songs:

1) Ananda naTana – kEdAram (S)
2) kapAli – mOhanam (AS)
3) rAmanAtham bhajEham – kAmavardhini (ANST)
4) cintayamA – bhairavi (AN)
5) tEruvadeppO – khamAs (A)
6) vishvEshvar – sindhubhairavi  (A)
7) patiki hArati – suruTTi
8) ni nAma rUpa mulaku (mangaLam) – saurAshTram

(Key: O=raga outline, A=raga alapana, t=tAnam, N=neraval, S=kalpana swaram, T=taniavartanam)

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Abhishek Raghuram for Sri Rama Lalitha Kala Mandira, Bangalore

Venue: Bangalore Gayana Samaja

Organizer: Sri Rama Lalitha Kala Mandira

Vocal: Abhishek Raghuram

Violin: Charulatha Ramanujam

Mrudangam: Anantha R. Krishnan

Khanjira: G. Guruprasanna

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List of songs:

1) karuNimpa (varNam) – sahAnA (O)

2) duDukugala – gauLa (O)

3) entarAnI – harikAmbOji (ANS)

4) aparAdhamulanOrvA – rasALi (AS)

5) sogasujUDa – kannaDagauLa (OS)

6) talli ninnu nera – kalyANi (ANST)

7) jAnakI ramaNA – kApi (A)

8) sakhi prANa – cencuruTTi

9) vishvEshvara – sindhubhairavi (A)

(Key: O=raga outline, A=raga alapana, t=tAnam, N=neraval, S=kalpana swaram, T=taniavartanam)